Prostate cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in men. Studies have suggested that serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a protein produced only by prostate tissue and often elevated in patients with prostate cancer, is one of the most useful tumor markers in oncology. In addition to cancer screening, PSA tests are also used to monitor recurrence in patients who have a history of prostate cancer. A trend of increasing PSA levels is often the first sign of recurrence, detectable months or years before other clinincal symptoms are present.

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